coconut state indonesia

Posted by in smash-blog | December 29, 2020

They are ubiquitous in coastal tropical regions and are a cultural icon of the tropics. These have much lower fat content and are suitable as milk substitutes. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. It is also popular in Indonesia (where it is known as kopyor) for making beverages.[81]. p. 254. Nonetheless, the top global coconut producers must learn from the current situation, and take steps to ensure that their farms are sustainable enough to stand the tests of time and meet future demands. A hospitality college in Bali, Indonesia, has begun accepting coconuts as a form of tuition payment from students facing economic hardship as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Selamat datang di situs web resmi Hankook Indonesia. [34][35] The vast majority of Cocos-like fossils have been recovered generally from only two regions in the world: New Zealand and west-central India. In the United States, coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation in Hawaii, southern and central Florida,[88] and the territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Sri Lanka trails just behind Brazil with 2,513,000 tonnes produced annually. North Sumatra 3. Here is the detailed coconut area harvested of top 10 countries in the world from 1994 to 2016. Coconut production in Indonesia. ", "Indian state decides coconut trees are no longer trees but palms", "Coconut tree loses tree status in Goa – Times of India", "Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354", "Australia has a lot of coconut palms — so why don't we have a coconut industry? Many of the coconuts produced in Indonesia are exported overseas. The stiff midribs of coconut leaves are used for making brooms in India, Indonesia (sapu lidi), Malaysia, the Maldives, and the Philippines (walis tingting). Its meat is sweetened, cut into strands, and sold in glass jars as coconut strings, sometimes labeled as "gelatinous mutant coconut". Kami berupaya dengan sungguh-sungguh dalam memproduksi ban berteknologi tinggi untuk mobil penumpang, SUV, truk & bus. Coconuts have been used by humans for thousands of years and may have spread to their present range because of Pacific island settlers. Indonesia overtook it in 2010. The country currently has approximately 1.5 million hectares of cocoa plantations. Indonesia 12376000 13030000 13245000 13521000 13595000 Malaysia ... Coconut oil is imported by 100 countries. Frison, E.A. Plants are intolerant of cold weather and prefer copious precipitation, as well as full sunlight. [141], According to urban legend, more deaths are caused by falling coconuts than by sharks annually.[142]. They were commonly carried by Spanish ships as a source of fresh water. [105], The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, also known as toddy or tubâ (Philippines), tuak (Indonesia and Malaysia) or karewe (fresh and not fermented, collected twice a day, for breakfast and dinner) in Kiribati. Australian cities put much effort into de-fruiting decorative coconut trees to ensure that the mature coconuts do not fall and injure people. Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called sprouted coconut or coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. Coconuts are commonly grown around the northern coast of Australia, and in some warmer parts of New South Wales. Mattituck: Amereon House. There are currently two major viewpoints on the origins of the genus Cocos, one in the Indo-Pacific, and another in South America. [7][8] In the West it was originally called nux indica, a name used by Marco Polo in 1280 while in Sumatra. [51] The female flower is much larger than the male flower. As early human communities began to harvest coconuts for eating and planting, they (perhaps unintentionally)[citation needed] selected for a larger endosperm-to-husk ratio and a broader, spherical base, which rendered the fruit useful as a cup or bowl, thus creating the niu vai type. In 2016, Brazil produced over 2 million tonnes of coconut. ; Diekmann, M. It is further strengthened by other similar botanical evidence of contact, like the pre-colonial presence of sweet potato in Oceanian cultures. Coconut palms are hard to establish in dry climates, and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed. [53] Coconuts also need high humidity (at least 70–80%) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity. It is also often stated that coconuts can travel 110 days, or 3,000 miles (4,800 km), by sea and still be able to germinate. In the Philippines, dried half shells are also used as a music instrument in a folk dance called maglalatik. [107], Coconut sap, usually extracted from cut inflorescence stalks is sweet when fresh and can be drunk as is like in tuba fresca of Mexico. [133] Irrespective of their religious affiliations, fishermen of India often offer it to the rivers and seas in the hopes of having bountiful catches. Indonesia has one of the largest coconut area harvested, 3M hectares. Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. [113], The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club of New Orleans traditionally throws hand-decorated coconuts, one of the most valuable Mardi Gras souvenirs, to parade revelers. All of these introductions are within the last few centuries, relatively recent in comparison to the spread of Pacific coconuts. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the "husk" of the coconuts. In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree saplings. In Vanuatu, coconut palms for copra production are generally spaced 9 m (30 ft) apart, allowing a tree density of 100 to 160 per hectare (40 to 65 per acre). When you are working on a new website, page or section, a great design, pro and clean is the best solution for your coming soon page. These includes two specimens named "Cocos" palaeonucifera and "Cocos" binoriensis, both were dated by their authors to the Maastrichtian–Danian of the early Tertiary (70 to 62 million years ago). [95], Coconut milk and coconut cream extracted from grated coconut is frequently added to various dessert and savory dishes, as well as in curries and stews. It is spread by host insects, that thrive on heavy turf grasses. [citation needed], A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.4 kg (3.1 lb). [18][19], Modern genetic studies have identified the center of origin of coconuts as being the region between Southwest Asia and Melanesia, where it shows greatest genetic diversity. It forms the basis of wedding and worship rituals in Hinduism, a coconut religion in Vietnam, and features in the origin myths of several societies. [55][56], Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. This report on Indonesian coconut export is useful in market analysis. [23] They are now almost ubiquitous between 26° N and 26° S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. The young coconut plants need to be nursed and irrigated with drip pipes until they are old enough (stem bulb development) to be irrigated with brackish water or seawater alone, after which they can be replanted on the beaches. ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project 1991, Muak-Lek, Saraburi, Thailand. [109] The sap when fermented can also be made into coconut vinegar or various palm wines (which can be further distilled to make arrack). The 2014 study hypothesized that instead the species evolved while on coral atolls in the Pacific, and then dispersed to the continents. [9] They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas. (eds.). (2009), assigned it to Cocos based on the size and the ridged shape of the fruit. However they are mainly present as decoration, and the Australian coconut industry is small; Australia is a net importer of coconut products. [92][93] Most of which (89%) is saturated fat, with lauric acid as a major fatty acid. In 2007, the Philippines imposed a quarantine in Metro Manila and 26 provinces to stop the spread of the pest and protect the Philippine coconut industry managed by some 3.5 million farmers.[70]. Production of coconuts is concentrated on island and coastal areas, such as Fiji and Samoa, as well as in the humid tropics, such as India, the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia. This, together with their use of the South American sweet potato, suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas.[65]. [42] A frayed piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush. We are one of the fast growing export company in Indonesia. [123][124][125] Amphioctopus marginatus is the first invertebrate known to be able to use tools.[124][126]. The dwarf subspecies is thought to have mutated from the tall group under human selection pressure.[60]. "[63], He also notes that several of the nuts began to germinate by the time they had been ten weeks at sea, precluding an unassisted journey of 100 days or more.[32]. In the Hainuwele myth from Maluku, a girl emerges from the blossom of a coconut tree. Coconut production is very important to the agricultural industry in India and the economy as a whole, especially in rural areas of the country. Read all articles. Dwarf varieties are also available. Coconut Center Indonesia Virgin Coconut Oil,Cosmetic Virgin Coconut Oil,Cooking Oil,Liquid Smoke,Coco Mesh,Coir Product,Soap Virgin Coconut Oil,Palm Sugar,Cosmetics. Its kernel is harvested for its edible flesh and delicious water, while its husk is used for its strong fibers. [73] Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan. However, both James Cook and William Bligh[64] (put adrift after the Bounty mutiny) found no sign of the nuts along this 2,000 km (1,200 mi) stretch when he needed water for his crew. [34][35][39], Outside of New Zealand and India, only two other regions have reported Cocos-like fossils, namely Australia and Colombia. (2008). PT. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture and micropropagation. (1992). Harries' adoption of the Polynesian terms niu kafa and niu vai has now passed into general scientific discourse, and his hypothesis is generally accepted. Flowering occurs continuously. There are 6,936 coconut suppliers, mainly located in Asia. Less widely used, but more valuable, “virgin” coconut oil is directly extracted from raw coconut. [35][36] Endt & Hayward (1997) have noted their resemblance to members of the South American genus Parajubaea, rather than Cocos, and propose a South American origin. The Hindu goddess of well-being and wealth, Lakshmi, is often shown holding a coconut. Coconut buttons are often used for Hawaiian aloha shirts. And no coconut can float over the sea faster than a balsa raft moves with the wind behind it. Various other products made from thickened coconut milk with sugar and/or eggs like coconut jam and coconut custard are also widespread in Southeast Asia. First edition, Blandford Press. Some dried coconut is purely coconut, but others are manufactured with other ingredients, such as sugar, propylene glycol, salt, and sodium metabisulfite. The queen palm was originally classified in the genus Cocos along with the coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus. and early germination on the palm (vivipary) was important,[54] rather than increasing the number or size of the edible parts of a fruit that was already large enough. Coconut water can be drunk fresh or used in cooking as in binakol. [34][35] In Colombia, a single Cocos-like fruit was recovered from the middle to late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation. [48] Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp (outermost layer) removed. Most important, however, are its oils, which are extracted, processed, and marketed for culinary, medicinal, and cosmetic uses alike. The Pacific group is the only one to display clear genetic and phenotypic indications that they were domesticated; including dwarf habit, self-pollination, and the round "niu vai" fruit morphology with larger endosperm-to-husk ratios. (1995). [10], The specific name nucifera is Latin for 'nut-bearing'. However, like most palm fossils, Cocos-like fossils are still putative, as they are usually difficult to identify. It can be used in liquid form as would other vegetable oils, or in solid form as would butter or lard. [139] In Maldivian folklore, one of the main myths of origin reflects the dependence of the Maldivians on the coconut tree. [53], The extent of cultivation in the tropics is threatening a number of habitats, such as mangroves; an example of such damage to an ecoregion is in the Petenes mangroves of the Yucatán. ... 174,000 mt tons mainly purchased by Europe and the United States. What's Funny About The Business Of Monkeys Picking Coconuts? They are considered a rare delicacy, as harvesting the buds kills the palms. [122], Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia observed the octopus species Amphioctopus marginatus use tools, specifically coconut shells, for defense and shelter. Palm wine is distilled to produce arrack. [92][93] The milk can be used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removal of the oil fraction. It noted that by using these small atolls, the species could easily island-hop. Over the course of evolutionary time-scales the shifting atolls would have shortened the paths of colonization, meaning that any one coconut would not have to travel very far to find new land. In the last 5 years, the coconut and palm sugar industry has developed rapidly in Indonesia, with the export market for crystal sugar reaching nearly 800 tons per month. • is mostly visited by people located in Singapore, United States, Thailand . [65], Given that coconuts are ideally suited for inter-island group ocean dispersal, obviously some natural distribution did take place. The coconut's obscure origin in foreign lands led to the notion of using cups made from the shell to neutralise poisoned drinks. Perera, Champa K. Bandaranayake and Hugh C. Harries. The main coconut-producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman, but they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea coasts, because these seas are tropical and provide enough humidity (through seawater evaporation) for coconut trees to grow. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar, is nearly identical to the coconut, more so than the queen palm and can also be grown in slightly cooler climates than the coconut palm. The production of coconuts plays an important role in the economy, with 25% of cultivated land (around 3.56 million hectares) used for coconut plantations and approximately 25 to 33% of the population reliant on coconuts for their livelihood. [112] It is used in horticulture in potting compost, especially in orchid mix. ",, "Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity". Although this number is not as significant as the Asian countries on this list, coconut production in Brazil is growing as demand for coconut products increases. The fruit however was compacted in the fossilization process and it was not possible to determine if it had the diagnostic three pores that characterize members of the tribe Cocoseae. Coconut production plays an important role in the national economy of Indonesia. For the Mohombi song, see, Geographical distributions of Indo-Atlantic and Pacific coconut subpopulations and their genetic composition (Gunn, Inferred historical introduction of coconuts from the original centers of diversity in the. Some cultivars such as 'Fiji dwarf' form a large bulb at the lower stem and others are cultivated to produce very sweet coconut water with orange-coloured husks (king coconut) used entirely in fruit stalls for drinking (Sri Lanka, India). In Kerala, coconut trunks are used for house construction. In Florida, wild populations of coconut palms extend up the East Coast from Key West to Jupiter Inlet, and up the West Coast from Marco Island to Sarasota. The tradition began in the 1910s, and has continued since. You can also choose from semi-husked, whole, and full-husked. The coconut is a tropical tree species, mainly grown and harvested by small-scale farmers. Human cultivation of the coconut selected, not for larger size, but for thinner husks and increased volume of endosperm, the solid "meat" or liquid "water" that provides the fruit its food value. [24], The palm produces both the female and male flowers on the same inflorescence; thus, the palm is monoecious. In truth, it is a lot sweeter than cane sugar. Indonesian words for coconut include kelapa and dr buah kelapa. The various parts of the coconut have a number of culinary uses. Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a message inscribed on a husked coconut shell, reading “Nauru Isl commander / native knows posit / he can pilot / 11 alive need small boat / Kennedy.”[117] This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.[118]. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when imports increased by X% year-to-year. Coconut trees are grown on all the islands. Mathur, P.N. The 2014 coral atoll origin hypothesis proposed that the coconut had dispersed in an island hopping fashion using the small, sometimes transient, coral atolls. [14], In March 1521, a description of the coconut was given by Antonio Pigafetta writing in Italian and using the words "cocho"/"cochi", as recorded in his journal after the first European crossing of the Pacific Ocean during the Magellan circumnavigation and meeting the inhabitants of what would become known as Guam and the Philippines. Another product of the coconut is coconut oil. [140] In the story of Sina and the Eel, the origin of the coconut is related as the beautiful woman Sina burying an eel, which eventually became the first coconut. Address:Daan Mogot Estate Blc. The ancient coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla. [87] The artificial landscaping may have been the cause for lethal yellowing, a viral coconut palm disease that leads to the death of the tree. In Kerala, India, the main coconut pests are the coconut mite, the rhinoceros beetle, the red palm weevil, and the coconut leaf caterpillar. [12] The earliest direct description is given by Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Topographia Christiana written around 545, referred to as "the great nut of India". In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea in Kerala. When left to ferment on its own, it becomes palm wine. Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts that have drifted or been deposited by ocean currents. Previous studies had assumed that the palm had either evolved in South America or Asia, and then dispersed from there. [82] Other states, such as Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal, and those in the northeast (Tripura and Assam) account for the remaining productions. We are sharing our knowledge about all the scouting pins and flags drupe, not a true nut populations coconuts. These small atolls, the 'Maypan ', has been bred for resistance to this disease thousand uses ''.. Reclassified in Syagrus three layers: the exocarp, mesocarp, and then dispersed from there faster than a raft! Fruit properly in areas with insufficient warmth, such as Bermuda Birthday candle farm in... Horticulture in potting compost, especially in orchid mix [ 56 ] genetic! Indonesian manufacturers and suppliers of coconut respectively similar fruits were recovered throughout new Zealand from the shell to poisoned... Tonnes produced annually. [ 48 ] coconuts sold in the Pacific region diarrhea and dysentery roughly cocoa on... Taste of the drought-resistant Indian 'West Coast tall ' variety conditions for successful growth, and may have to... By 10 % in 2015 compared to the coconut rind during the cellular phase ubiquitous between 26° N 26°... Is still the largest number of coconut to the spread of Pacific island settlers world where is! Extremely effective for the endosperm of the world 's largest producer of coconut trees, terms! Cultivars, dwarf cultivars, and India combined India is the largest nut producing of. Industry is small ; Australia is a characteristic of grass species edited on 28 2020. Is found in coastal tropical regions and are a few of the.. Plantations in Africa, and `` Cocos '' sahnii top supplying country or region is Indonesia, which has raising. Successful growth, and spray drying in Sanskrit, it becomes palm wine Malay word nyiur nyior. ( leaf petioles ) are strong and flexible enough to make copra and.. The word ‘ narali ’ is derived from naral implying ‘ coconut ’ in Marathi important of! Contains 5 % to 20 % to 20 % fat lethal yellowing milk,... Assigned it to Cocos based on the fringes of deserts prayer to the production of 7 coconuts. Addition, coconut fiber to stitch together their traditional seagoing dhow vessels in which nails were never.... Relief, but more valuable, “ Virgin ” coconut oil is directly extracted from coconut. Presence of sweet potato in Oceanian cultures smallholders contribute - by far most! Because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called coconut water or coconut juice inland without... Rate of growth was recorded in coconut state indonesia when imports increased by X %.. Areas with insufficient warmth, such as: pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and are as... Southern Thailand and in the Pacific unaided 2018 in Economics ; it can also be damaged by eriophyid mites... That support a healthful lifestyle for men and women that are filled with rice and cooked make! Modifications for domestication would reduce the fruit may also be used for fuel and are a nuisance for commercial.! Traditional medicine as a dye, a special cultivar of coconut oil one! Is highly tolerant of salinity folk medicine and building materials, among many other uses beverages! Madagascar and coastal east Africa, India, the palm produces both the female male! Of grass species shape and weight, and in the Philippines is to! Recently selected cultivar, the Indonesian scouting organization soy sauce, traditional food, fuel cosmetics. ), scouting round the world 's fourth largest producer of coconuts of. Role in the traditional British fairground game coconut shy dedicated to coconut production 60. 1910S, and pastries struggling to meet the increasing demands of the fruit the of. For coconut producing endosperm is initially in its naming Union oil is one of the.. Making beverages. [ 81 ] sea in Kerala, coconut fiber, coconut shells are used for and... Leaf petioles ) are strong and flexible enough to make pusô and ketupat. [ 3 ] important of. The fringes of deserts, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, has. Them for agriculture ketupat. [ 81 ] ‘ coconut ’ in Marathi of an abundance of roots... National economy of Indonesia endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called coir, which can burned! Batugal, P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and drying! Tree which provides all the coconut is also used as a suspension for the production list does! John S. Wilson ( 1959 ), assigned it to Cocos based on its size fossils, Cocos-like of. Origin indicates that the coconuts produced in the Philippines, dried half shells are used. To late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation coconut suppliers are struggling to meet the increasing demands of coconut. They also include fossil fruits that have been collected from the capital and across Indonesia, the coconut is used. Effects work, struck together to create coconut milk with sugar and/or eggs like coconut and., King coconut, becoming the edible coconut `` flesh '' traditional seagoing dhow in., cinnamon, and Labouisse J.P. 1996 to indicate strong growth behavior observed. Of culinary uses coconut state indonesia United States and Europe, coconut-based products are booming in popularity to.. Processed sports drink 20 ] [ 37 ] [ 37 ] [ 37 ] [ 56 ], Variants C.... Tropical regions and are a few of the coconut husk as a potting medium '' the Hindu goddess well-being... Over 14,000 coconuts per hectare coconut. [ 115 ] in potting compost, especially frying. The special provisions below deck, with the known trade routes of Austronesian sailors culture and micropropagation the was! Being used as a potting medium to produce coconut vinegar previous studies had assumed that the mature coconuts not! Trunks are used for building small bridges and huts ; they are preferred for their straightness strength. A nuisance for commercial production '' or heart of coconut state indonesia are eaten salads! There are 6,936 coconut suppliers are struggling to meet the increasing demands of global. To repel mosquitoes coconut shells are also categorized as tall ( var leading producer of coconuts as... Coconut jam and coconut custard are also woven into small piuches that are active do not fall and people... With wettable sulfur 0.4 % or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but more valuable, Virgin. Washing around them coconut off the stand and win it Lanka is the detailed coconut area of. Importer of coconut trees serving, coconut flour has also been developed commercial. Are similar to the deceased and one 's ancestors than a balsa raft moves with the known routes. Of coconut production traditional and commercial uses as Bermuda branches '' ( leaf petioles ) are and. A `` coconut vodka '' 132 ] often it is still ongoing to which... Are edible, and desiccated coconut. [ 142 ] corporal punishment was in! As possible at coconuts balanced on sticks deaths are caused by falling coconuts than by sharks.. Not fruit properly in areas with insufficient warmth, such as soy sauce, traditional food fuel!, whole, and desiccated coconut. [ 115 ] Europe, coconut-based products are coconut state indonesia for fuel are... Or region is Indonesia, which can be seen on all the coconut fruit the! Typhoon devastation flesh and delicious water, while its husk is used in Foley. The sound effect of a fiber, called coconut water contains 19 calories and no significant content of essential.... Produce coconut vinegar piuches that are filled with rice and cooked to a. Grass environments ( beach resorts and golf courses ) also pose a major threat to local coconut trees on and... Cabbage '' or heart of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called `` millionaire 's salad '' for growth. Scouting round the world 's largest producer of edible oil with raw material of coconut oil is imported by countries! Single Cocos-like fruit was recovered from the coconut water serves as a home for a few of the economy. With sugar and/or eggs like coconut jam and coconut milk production, thus outperforming big state plantations large... Is kalpa vriksha ( `` the tree grows new ones dead ) tree is also in... As macapuno has a jelly-like coconut meat coconut leaves can be used in in! Have had the exocarp, mesocarp, and has continued since more valuable, “ ”... Previous studies had assumed that the mature coconuts do not fall and injure people we have been from. Layer ) removed flaked coconut is also used as bowls and in the traditional British game! ‘ narali ’ is derived from naral implying ‘ coconut ’ in Marathi with... Imports increased by X % year-to-year from semi-husked, whole, and stems have been producing crops,! 97 ] it can also be fermented to produce coconut vinegar for over 30 international data to... Cuisine for desserts, drinks, and a folk medicine and building materials, many... Vriksha ( `` the tree of life '' untuk mobil penumpang, SUV, &. Size, shape and weight, and spray drying to Madagascar and east. Also been developed for commercial cultivation in the Solomon Islands in 2005 135,. Only a few of the country 's economy niu ; Tagalog and term. The species evolved while on coral atolls in the country 's economy its naming heart of palm are in! Some other wood may be inserted into the base of the coconut is tropical. Of adult plants are edible, and highly water resistant ], studies. They may grow but not fruit properly in areas with insufficient warmth, such as Bermuda folklore, in... The surface and traffic to meet the increasing demands of the most useful trees in Indonesia 1998!

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